Threatening factors

A significant decline in population numbers has been experienced since the last decades of the 20th century.

The main possible threatening factors are:

  • Loss and degradation of natural nesting sites (the drastic decline in the Rook population, the loss of steppe wood patches due to illegal lodging, in Slovakia, Serbia and Romania decrease of natural nesting opportunities due to the direct persecution, disturbance and shooting of Corvids)
  • Loss and degradation of feeding habitats (intensification of agriculture, the disappearing of bird friendly land management practices /e.g. grazing/)
  • Electrocution, road-kills
  • Predators at breeding colonies (Stone martens and Goshawk)
  • Mortality during migration, negative impacts on the wintering grounds


For the complete list of threats and their regional relevance please consult with the International Action Plan for the Species or the National Action Plans.